Mahabharat is one of the greatest mythological tales of Hinduism. Moreover, it is also the longest poem in the world. It alone has 200,000 individual verse lines. The story of Mahabharata is the story of cousins and brothers, which end on a devastating battle. The devastating battle is also called as Mahabharata. It describes the valor, righteousness of Pandavas, and the treachery, vileness of Kauravas. It describes Lord Krishna as the ultimate figure who will stand with those who choose Dharma in their life.
Mahabharata is remembered for the enmity between Kauravas and Pandavas. However, it also was the product of greed and arrogance of the peoples that came before them. The ancestors of Pandavs and Kauravas ruled the kingdom of Hastinapur for generations. After, generations of rulers there came the reign of king Santanu. King Santanu was a kind and loving person. He always thought of his kingdom and peoples. He had a son with Devi Ganga, named Devrat.
The kind had an affair with the Fishermans daughter Satyavati. However, when the king approached her hand for marriage he rejected. The reason was that only Devrat and his sons will in the future will rule the kingdom and the children of his daughter will be sidelined. The king loved his son so much that he decided to leave the girl and return to his kingdom.
Devrat noticed that his father was losing his efficiency in work, was getting sick and less energetic. He wanted to know the reason behind this and went to investigate. Then, he went to the house of the fisher to ask for his daughter to be wed to the king. The fisher showed the same dilemma that he had told the king. Upon hearing this Devrat took the oath of Brahmacharya and decided he will neither marry nor have children, he would be bound to the throne of Hastinapur and do what the king commands. This was the Bhisma Pratigya and from that day onwards Devrat was known as Bhisma.
Bhisma is the major character in Mahabharata. He and his oath are the reason for Mahabharata. He was known as the strongest. There was no one who could win in a fight with him. He was the student of Parshuram himself. He had the cosmic weapons, and for his Bissma oath got the boon of Icchya Mrityu. Meaning he could only die when he wanted, until then no one can kill him.
Dhritrarastra and Pandu
Dhritarashtra and Pandu were the grandson of Satyavati. Their father dies at the early age. Dhritarashtra was the eldest however was not given the crown for his blindness. Pandu was crowned as the king.
The Pandavas and Kauravas
Five sons were born to king Pandu Yudhisthir, Bheem, Arjun and the twins Nakul and Sahadev. At the same period, Dhritarashtra also had sons. He had 100 sons in total. His eldest was born after Bheem. Duryodhan was bigger than Arjun, Nakul and Sahadev while was younger than Yudhisthir and Bheem. Shortly after the birth of the sons King Pandu passed away and the crown was given to Dhritarashtra.
Pandavas and Kauravas
The Kauravas always had ill feeling towards Pandavas. The vile feeling to some extent was caused by Sakuni. Sakuni was the uncle of Kauravas from the mother’s side. He wanted his nephews succeed to the thrones instead of the Pandavs. The enmity between them grew day by day. Sakuni with the Kauravas attempted to murder the Pandavs many times even in teen years but were unsuccessful every time. At one-point Pandavs faked their death and lived away from Hastinapur.
Draupadi was the daughter of kind Drupad. She has a very key role in Mahabharata. The swoyambar of Draupadi was organized. The kings of various country were invited. However, nobody was able to complete the task that had to be completed. When no one was capable, Arjun disguised as a brahmin completed the task and was about to be married to Draupadi. However, when without knowing his mother Kunti ordered it to be divided among the five brothers. Draupadi was made the single wife of five brothers.
Krishna at this point entered the tale of Mahabharata. He was believed to be the eight incarnations of Lord Vishnu. He is believed to have come to the earth to destroy the evil doers and place Dharma in the hearts of the people. He is the key person in Mahabharata
Return to Hastinapur and Indra Prasat
After the wedding Pandavs decided to return to Hastinapur to get their right. However, clash arrived at the court about the succession of the throne. Then the kingdom was divided into two, Kauravas got Hastinapur and Pandavs got Khadavaprastha.
Khadavaprastha was land not suitable for residence and was only a swamp. Snakes and other poisonous animals used to live there. The Pandavs worked hard and made Khadavaprastha the most beautiful place in the area. It was so beautiful that is looked like the city of the gods; hence the name was converted to Indraprastha. Mahabharata says that the city was so beautiful and prosperous that every king was jealous of it. The economic prosperity combined with the immense strength of Pandav brothers, became the best place to live in whole Aryavart.
Various kings were invited to Indraprastha for a function. Duryodhan was also there as the representation of his king. The city was so prosperous and beautiful that Duryodhan could not believe his eyes. His eyes became red with rage and heart black with the desire to take the kingdom from them. The palace designed by the Pandavs was a mystic one and filled with illusion. Duryodhan got into the illusion and fell into the pool of water. Then Draupadi insulted him by the mean words. Then Duryodhan humiliated returned to Hastinapur and plotted revenge against Pandavs with his uncle Sakuni.
The Game of Dice
The tampered game of dice was the main cause of Mahabharata. From here the Pandav vowed revenge and war was fought.
Pandavs were invited in the game of dice to Hastinapur. With the rigged dice Sakuni won everything the Pandavs. Left with nothing Yudhisthir put even himself and his brothers as the bait and were won by Sakuni. Then they also won Draupadi.
As the revenge of humiliating Duryodhan, Draupadi was about to be disrobed in the court at the hands of Dushasan. Draupadi prayed Krishna to save her. With his Maya lord Krishna saved Draupadi with the humiliation.
As the result of losing, Pandavs were sent to 12 years of exile in the forest and 1 year of hiding. Also, if they were found while hiding, they again must go 12 years in exile.
The Pandav, went to exile taking oath that when they will return there will be war and everyone who stood with Duryodhan will be killed. Bhim took the oath to kill all 100 sons of king Dhritarashtra himself and to rip out the chest of Dushasan and drink his blood.
After this Pandav spent 12 years in exile and 1 year in hidden, disguised as commoners in Biratnagar.
After returning from exile, Pandav demanded back their kingdom. However, Duryodhan refused. Lord Krishna standing for the Pandavs side went to Hastinapur to try peace in place of war. Arrogant Duryodhan refused and choose war.
Bhisma, Drona and Karna
Bhisma was the commander in chief of Hastinapur, Drona was the Guru of Hastinapur and Karna was sworn friend of Duryodhan. All three of them were the student of Lord Parshuram and were immensely powerful. No one was capable to defeat them because of their boons and weapons. Duryodhan with the power of these was so sure that they will win and choose the war in place of peace.
Lord Krishna was approached by both sides to take part in war. However, he decided not to take up arms in war. Then he decided to go in war as the charioteer of Arjun.
When the battle was about to begin, Arjun did not want to fight as there were own blood among the people he was about to kill. Then Lord Krishna gave the eternal knowledge to Arjun. That eternal knowledge is known as Geeta. It is one of the holiest books of Hindu mythology. Yada yada hi dharmasya Glanir bhavati bharata Abhyutthanam adharmasya Tadatmanam srijamy aham
Paritranaya sadhunam Vinasaya ca duskritam Dharma-samsthapanarthya Sambhayami yuge yuge
Meaning when the Dharma will be in danger and evil persons will take control of earth and good peoples will be marginalized, when injustice increases and the good person will face lot of problems while trying to live their life peacefully, Dharma will be only reduced to name.
He will come to earth to free earth from all the evil persons. He is the one who will protect Dharma, He is the one who will come to them when they are in need, He is the one who will punish the evil persons, He is the one who have the duty to protect all.
When Arjun was in the dilemma to fight, he assured that for the protection of Dharma one even must go against his loved ones. There is no supreme thing than Dharma and duty. The supreme one has given Arjun his power, abilities, and knowledge so that he could to the right thing. The right thing at that moment was to fight.
Lord told Arjun that everyone and everything in existence is part of him and he will only destroy their bodies. The soul is eternal and cannot be destroyed. They are the fragments of God which will ultimately return to them. To restore Dharma when Arjuna will be killing them, he will free their soul from the body of the sins. He will also free the people from their burdened life. Bhisma, Drona and Karna fought for their duty what they thought their Dharma was. They were forced by their duty to go against Dharma, Arjuna with his arrows will free them also.
Lord Krishna at the end of Geeta knowledge showed his Birat form. Which was superior to every god and was the only supreme being. He said he was the past, present and future. He exists within everything and in nothing. Except pure love and devotion nothing can understand or even begin to comprehend what he is.
When he heard everything from the Lord and knew the truth of existence and what his duty was, he picked his Gandiva (Arjun’s bow) and pointed his arrow at the army ahead of him.
At last, the war took place between the cousins. Whole Aryabrat was at Kurukshetra for Mahabharata taking sides they believed in.
The battle of Mahabharata was fought for 18 days. For 18 days both parties fought with all their might and valor. Many Divya Astra, cosmic weapons were launched whose destructive ability was beyond anything else.
Bhisma, Drona and Karna could not be defeated by normal means. They were just too powerful to be defeated even by the warrior Arjuna. Lord Krishna’s suggestion and indirect intervention in the war was the reason Pandav defeated all the maharathis is Mahabharata. With aid of Lord Krishna and showing the way Arjun defeated most of the strongest warrior in Mahabharata.
In the battle of Mahabharata, Bheem was the one who killed all the 100 brothers of Duryodhan. He also drank the blood of Dussahana by ripping out his chest as promised.
Both sides lost many in the war. Even all the children of Pandavs died in the war of Mahabharat. Only ten of the 3.94 million involved in the war of Mahabharata survived. Five Pandavs Yudhisthir, Bheem, Arjun, Nakul and Sahadev, Lord Krishna, Kritavarma, Sataki form the side of Pandavs. Kripacharya and Ashwathama from the side of Duryodhan survived in Mahabharata. The war ended with the death of Duryodhan. Bheem defeated Duryodhan in the mace battle with the aid of Lord Krishna.
Among the 105 princes of Hastinapur, only the son of Abhimanyu (Son of Arjun) survived as the successor of the Kurus (Name of the clan of the royal family of Hastinapur).
When the war was over Yudhistara was crowned as the king of Hastinapur. The five brothers then gave their all to restore peace and Dharma in Aryavart.
In our life almost all of us has heard the name Krishna. Some of us even have the name Krishna. But who is Krishna? Why does everyone know him? Why people are named after him?
Lord Krishna is said to be the 8th avatar of lord Vishnu. Lord Krishna is believed to be existed on earth thousands of years ago. When earth was engulfed by evil, demons, asurs and good peoples were at the edge. Then, it is believed that Lord Vishnu incarnated himself as Lord Krishna. His goal to incarnate as human was to free the world of those evil elements and establish peace, and dharma.
Birth of Krishna
Kansa was the evil prince of Mathura. He performed many evil works and was even acquainted with monsters and demons. However, bad cruel and demonic natured he may have been he loved his sister Devaki very much. His sister was about to be married to Vasudev. When they were married and Devaki was about to be sent with Vasudev. The sky predicted that the 8th son of Devaki and Vasudev will be the one to kill Kansa. Then Kansa fearing for his life wanted to kill even his beloved sister. However, he thought it is cowardly to kill a woman and therefore will kill his sons after they are born. Then he kept them under imprisonment.
One by one Kansa killed all the six children just after they were born. However, the seventh son was transferred to the womb of mother Rohini. But Kansa thought the child died in womb. Then as the eight son Lord Krishna was born. When Lord Krishna was born, he was replaced by the daughter of Nand and Yasoda. The chains of the prison miraculously opened when Lord Krishna was born. Then Vasudev exchanged the children as told by the god.
Then Balram (7th son of Devaki) and Lord Krishna were taken as the children of Nand and Yasuda. They had their settlement in Gokul. The childhood of Lord Krishna was spent on Gokul.
Childhood of Krishna
Nand and Yasuda did not know that Lord Krishna was their adopted child and loved him deeply. Day after day Lord Krishna and Balram started to grow. Lord Krishna in his childhood days was known to be extremely naughty and was used to conduct various mischief. However, the whole village was enchanted by the maya of lord and none could be angry at him. Purans describe him as the most beautiful child as the mystic appearance, and enchanting ability.
In Mathura, Kansa found out that his killer somehow survived and was living in Gokul. Then, he started sending his monsters to do his bidding and kill the lord. However, every time Lord Krishna killed the demons that was sent to kill him. Putana, Shakatasura, Vatsasura, Bakasura, Aghasura are some of the demons that were sent by Kansa to kill Lord Krishna. However, they all died at the hands of the lord while trying to follow the order of their king Kansa.
Krishna’s village Gokul was more dependent on agriculture. The man of the village did agriculture, the boys used to look after the cattle herd and women the work of house. As Lord Krishna was a boy his sole duty was to look after the cattle. He used to look and take care of the cattle but also used to perform his pranks all over Gokul. He was famous for stealing the butter from the houses.
Radha, the beloved of Krishna
Radha was the love interest of Lord Krishna. Lord never loved any one as much as he loved Radha. There love was so great that even when in the end they could not be together they are regarded as the symbol of love. Even today when the picture or idol of Lord Krishna is made it is made together with Radha.
Teenage years and death of Kansa
The life of lord was going as it was going in his childhood. He used to herd the cattle, play his flute, help the good person, and kill the demons. Not only the demons sent by Kansa, he killed other evil doers also. Days were passing like that in Gokul.
One day Kansa decided to kill his nephews himself as his demons could not perform the task. Instead of attacking and battling him, he devised a plan. The plan was to organize a massive tournament and inviting his nephews to watch the fight. Then during the program kill them with the fighters.
He sent his invitation, then sent his peoples to fetch the brothers. The parents and people of Gokul were very reluctant about sending the boys. However, Lord Krishna convinced them that Kansa can do nothing to them. Then Lord Krishna with his elder brother Balram went to Mathura as per the invitation.
After arriving in Mathura, Lord Krishna wanted to visit the city. Then instead if immediately going to the tournament, he roamed the streets of Mathura performing miracles. Eventually he went to the tournament. After sometime, Kansa invited him to join the tournament for kusti. Lord Krishna agreed and together with Balram he defeated the warriors. At, last Kansa himself joined the battle and was killed by Lord Krishna. Lord killed Kansa when he was just 11 years and six months old. After defeating Kansa, Lord Krishna freed his parents and started ruling the kingdom.
Mahabharat- The battle between Kaurava and Pandava
Mahabharat is believed to be one of the most devasting wars ever to occurs in Hindu mythology. 1.66 billion people did in the war of Mahabharat as per Hindu scriptures.
Mahabharat was the result of dispute between Pandava and Kauravas. Pandav were the sons of king Paandu and were five. Where Kauravas were the sons of kind Dhritarashtra. They were brothers by the relation of blood, but struggle for throne made them enemies.
Mahabharat has numerous characters, and due to their active role, the war happened. Pandav, Kauravas, Sakuni, Dhritarashtra, Bhisma, Drona, Draupadi all had their active role for leading to the massive war. However, the biggest and most significant role was of Lord Krishna himself. Without him neither the war would have happened, nor the Pandavs would have emerged victorious.
Lord Krishna and Draupadi
Draupadi was the daughter of king Drupad and was the princess of Panchal. Drupad got twins Draupadi and Dhrishtadyumna as a gift from gods, as they were pleased by his Yagya.
Draupadi was the wife of five Pandavas. Yudhisthir, Bheem, Arjun, Nakul and Sahadev all were her husbands. All five of the Pandavs maybe her husbands but it was arjuna who won her heart in shoyambar.
Sakuni and Duryodhan in the game of dice with their tampered dice won everything from the Pandavs. Their kingdom, wealth, palaces all were taken from them even their freedom. Duryodhan and Dushasan tried to insult Draupadi by disrobing her in front of whole court. It was Lord Krishna who saved her from her insult with his maya. Then for that attempt of misbehavior the war happened between them.
The relation between Lord Krishna and Draupadi is of friends. They are sworn friends who has promised to help each other in every part of their lives. Lord Krishna always adored and cared for her. In every part of Draupadi’s life when she faced problem, lord Krishna stood there at her side to help her. In shoyambar, dice game an in war also lord Krishna always fulfilled his duty and completed the oath they took when they became friends.
Lord Krishna and Arjun
Arjun was the third son of kind Pandu and queen Kunti. He is also the son of lord Indra, that makes him a demigod. Prince Arjun is known for his beavery, valor as warrior and the strength he possessed as an archer and warrior.
Arjun from childhood was interested in archery. While every warrior from Yudhistara’s side contributed their share in war. Arjuna was the reason they won the war. In the was Arjuna defeated the power houses like Bhesma, Drona and Karna. These three warriors from the side of Duryodhan were undefeated in their entire lives. All three were so skilled in battle that people used to think they cannot be defeated. With their strength, divine weapons and boon Duryodhan was sure that they will win the war. However, Arjuna defeated them all and won the war.
Arjun met lord Krishna when he was already an adult. From the moment Arjun met the lord he was enchanted by his knowledge, strength, righteousness, and his divine charm. After, being acquainted with lord Krishna, in time Arjun became his dearest friend. Whenever Arjun faced problem in life, he went to lord for showing the right path and he always did. They were the closest, Arjuna was devoted to the lord and Lord Krishna also loved Arjuna deeply.
Invitation of War
Lord Krishna was invited by both parties to take part in war with their side. Everybody knew how strong was he, and how powerful were his divine weapons. He told that is he were to take up arms in the war, it would end in seconds. Therefore, even if he were to take part in war, he will not raise any weapons. However, he proposed to go in war as a charioteer and they were free to choose him or his army. Then Arjuna choose Krishna and Duryodhan choose his army.
The war was inevitable, both armies were facing each other. However, at that moment arjun refused to take arms against his own blood. Then lord Krishna gave the eternal knowledge to prince Arjun. He showed his Birat and eternal form, and told he is all there is and he is the supreme being there is nothing and no one superior than him. He told Arjun the mysteries of universe, mysteries to him. This encouraged Arjun to take up the arms and fulfill his duties to the world. The knowledge and revealing that lord Krishna gave Arjun in called as Geeta. It is the holiest book in the Hindu religion.
Kurukshetra was the place where the war was fought. The destructive war was fought for 11 days. The destruction of life that took place in that war was incomparable, it was too much death and sorrow. Countless divine weapons, mystic arts were used by the warriors who were involved in the war.
Lord Krishna did not directly take the weapons in his hand during the battles. However, due to his planning, illusion and suggestions the war ended in the favor of dharma. Bhisma who could die only by his free will, Drona the supreme warrior and guru of Pandavs and Karna who had impenetrable armor, all became useless due to the lords planning. Arjun defeated them all but without lord Krishna’s manipulation of the situation, it would have been impossible.
After, 11 days of war, countless deaths and destruction only the handful number of peoples survived the war. The five Pandav brothers, lord Krishna, Ashwathama, Kripacharya, Satyaki, Yuyutsu, Kritavarma and Vrishyaketu are the 12 survivors of Mahabharat. While some sources also say there were only twelve survivors.
Death of Krishna
After the Mahabharat war, Yudhisthir was crowned as the king of Hastinapur. Queen Gandhari who had lost her 100 sons in the war, held responsible Krishna for the entire destruction. With all the powers and abilities, he could have stopped the war before it even took place. He could have saved all of them from the war but he chooses war, pain, and destruction for them.
Then she cursed, lord Krishna that his Dwarika will be destroyed in civil war, his people will be killed in it and he too will be killed by a hunter. Lord Krishna graciously accepted the curse and even thanked Gandhari for that. He said Gandhari was only the medium the way of universe and supreme god made her say these vicious words.
After some time like the curse said, there was a huge civil war in Dwarika (The city of lord Krishna). In the war all the Yadav’s were killed none survived. After the war-tired lord Krishna was resting below a tree in the forest. At the same time a hunter named Jara thinking lord Krishna was a deer launched an arrow. That was the very that killed lord Krishna.
In the previous birth the hunter Jara was monkey king Bali and lord Krishna was lord Rama. He killed monkey king Bali, by hiding in the trees. Then, when by hiding in the trees. As the compensation for the previous birth Jara killed lord Krishna in the same way. This was all planned by the lord himself, the way he will leave the earth and return to Baikuntha.
What is enlightenment? The History behind it and how to practice enlightenment?
Enlightenment is a very vast word. Many people talk about it but there are only those who understand and achieve enlightenment. Throughout history, many have achieved enlightenment. The ones who have are today the part of our mythology or are prominent names that we hear in our lives. However, what is enlightenment? How to practice enlightenment is big question?
It is the process where one gets knowledge, and his consciousness becomes mature. As we first introduced enlightenment, it is very vast. Looking at it the very concept of enlightenment may be very flexible. Its definition differs and is limited in which context it is talking about and it certainly also depend upon the type of religion. How to practice enlightenment is a religious and psychological type question rather than a scientific one.
Different religions and people elaborate about different things about how to practice enlightenment? Since from outside we cannot determine who has achieved enlightenment or not, so it is extremely hard to even determine who has done so or who has not. As mentioned, above how to practice enlightenment? It is not a scientific or mathematical question so there is no definite answer like 1+1=2, the field of religion and psychology is extremely flexible.
For such a flexible field the equation is further complicated because each person is unique from one another. The path that works for one may not work for the other. While the destination is enlightenment, and the question is how to practice enlightenment? The path varies in huge amounts. It may be unique to everyone. The religion, ancient texts provide some guidelines, but the path needs to be founded by oneself and completed by oneself.
Enlightenment and how to practice enlightenment? Is deeply elaborated inside two religions, Hinduism, and Buddhism. In both religions the ultimate goal of human existence is enlightenment. Both have the unique perspective of enlightenment, even different processes but the result after knowing the answer to how to practice enlightenment is the same. The soul becomes one with the universe itself and the world will be revealed to the one so much that he will see the entire world in the new light.
How to practice enlightenment by Buddhism
Buddhism is said to be started by Lord Buddha. Buddha is not the name of the individual given at birth, it is the post or level one reaches after the soul becomes enlightened. It is believed that there had been many reincarnations of Lord Buddha throughout history in various places of the earth. In all his life his goal was to achieve enlighten and teach people how to practice enlightenment?
The last birth of Buddha is said to be in Nepal 2500 years ago. He was born as a prince of Kapilvastu. His father was King Suddhodhan and queen Mayadevi. The name of Lord Buddha during birth was Siddharta. He was about to be the king of the kingdom. He was married to a beautiful princess Yasodhara and had a beautiful con with her Rahul.
His life was perfect, people were happy with him as he was an extremely capable person who could perfectly lead their kingdom and will be able to give a better life to them. Everyone was happy with the prince his family and his people. However, the only one that was not satisfied with himself was the prince himself. He wanted to know more about life and wanted to achieve something that would satisfy him from the inside.
One night secretly the prince left the kingdom to know how to practice enlightenment. He traveled many times met new people. Amassed the knowledge and practiced himself. The prince asked the sages he could find about how to find true happiness, how to practice enlightenment. However, nobody could tell him an exact answer to his question. They all provided the answer within their capacity and knowledge. But, to him, it was never enough, nor he was satisfied with the answer.
Siddhartha was now on the way to find the answer by himself. He started to try various things and started to meditate in search of enlightenment. Many years passed like that, the man who was prince once was unrecognizable anymore.
One day he was meditating under the Bodhi tree. He was far away from his kingdom; he was not the man he was anymore; he has been practicing meditation for long time and the path of right oughtness for years. Then he became enlightened sitting under the tree and meditating. Then in that instance prince, Siddharta became Lord Buddha.
Lord Buddha after achieving enlightenment started spreading the knowledge to others. In time he had many disciples who followed him to the path of it. Lord buddha traveled from one place to another, helping people who were lost and wanted to go to the light of enlightenment. The followers of Buddha in time were called Buddhist and walked in the path of Non-violence and peace. The teaching of Buddha remains after he has long left the earth.
The Buddhists follow the noble eightfold path to reach enlightenment.
The eight paths as per Buddhism is the answer to the question of how to practice enlightenment:
Right view: The ability to see the right in everything.
Right intention: To have a pure and noble intention, that is good for everyone.
Right speech: To always speak the truth, and to not lie to anyone ever.
Right Action: The path of non-violence and peace.
Right Livelihood: Only to possess what is necessary to live and not owning anything other.
Right effort: Having the right determination to achieve enlightenment.
Right mindfulness: Being true to the Dharma and always following it.
Right samadhi: Achieve enlightenment through the way of meditation
These are the eightfold ways that get one enlightenment. As per Buddhism when one follows all these paths for years without doubting them and placing control over the heart and mind with the powerful desire to achieve enlightenment, It is born through them. Many following the teachings of Lord Buddha have achieved enlightenment.
How to practice enlightenment by Hinduism
Hinduism is a very vast religion. Hinduism is said to be the oldest religion that is present in the world today. There is no exact evidence that who or when started the religion of Hinduism. As the Hindu texts and scriptures explain the time is divided into the four Yug’s and now we are in Kal Yug The three have already passed and we are currently living in the last of them.
As per Hinduism, the same religion was followed in the previous three Yug’s and the same gods and goddesses were worshipped in the same manner. If we were to tell how old Hinduism is based on its scriptures and stories then Hinduism is as old as when the first humans were created. The first human was created by the creator Brahma and since the first humans, they started worshipping the gods.
Hinduism is a recent name that was given by the foreign people who visited the Indian subcontinent in the past. When they arrived the people, who were living on the bank of the Indus River followed this religion so they in time called Hindus and religion Hinduism.
The original name of Hinduism is called the Sanatana Dharma, as told by the ancient peoples who followed it. Hinduism or Sanatan Dharma is a very vast field, so vast that one who has just immersed in the topic can find it overwhelming. They may not be able to keep with the name of Gods and Goddess as there are thousands.
Moreover, some gods have multiple incarnations and even have hundreds of names. So, let Set aside most of Hinduism and focus on the enlightenment and how Hinduism answers how to practice enlightenment.
Hinduism is so vast that there are multiple answers to the question of how to practice enlightenment. There may be many ways to achieve enlightenment, the goal of all the ways remains the same. In the end, the soul becomes one with the universe and has a cosmic presence.
In the past according to Hinduism, before Kaliyuga and the start of time people had a different approach to how to practice enlightenment. The sages who wanted the answer to how to practice enlightenment would go into deep meditation. They would be so deep into the meditation that they would even no know how much time had passed and what is happening in the world. They would only focus on themselves and their meditation.
During this, they are focusing their mind on a single point be it a mantra or the name of the deity. This keeps on increasing the tapobal of the individual. Tapobal is the power accumulated by Tapasya or meditation for a long time. When enough power was collected by meditation and dhyana either they become self-enlightened or the deity they were chanting the mantra comes and makes them enlightened.
The ones who were the incarnation of the gods or blessed by the gods did not have to go through this process. They did not meditate long to find how to practice enlightenment. They were already enlightened when they were born. Lord Krishna, Lord Ram, are some examples of this. When they arrived in this world, they already knew how to practice enlightenment and were enlightened. They knew their true goal, the cosmic knowledge, their dharma, and all things that make one truly enlightened.
They were also the ones who taught how to practice enlightenment to the world. Lord Krishna was the one who showed the path of enlightenment to Arjuna. In the battle of Mahabharata when Arjuna was hesitant to enter the battle Lord Krishna enlightened him. According to Lord Krishna, he was as much made of flesh as Arjuna, his body was born, and it will die. So, what was the difference between Arjuna and Krishna? The difference was that Krishna was the enlightened soul while Arjuna was not.
According to Hinduism every living being born has the fragment of the god inside of him. Human, animal, good, bad, whoever it may be must have the fragment of the god inside of him/her to alive. That fragment is what we know as soul or Atma. When the soul reconnects its link with the god, the being becomes enlightened. Therefore, Krishna doing so is the enlightened being.
By following the way of Dharma, doing one Karma no matter how hard it is, not doing the work of Adharma, living for the welfare of others, helping the one in need, controlling the desires, mind, and heart, meditation and trying to know the soul and spiritual world instead of the physical world gets one to the path of enlightenment. This all is knowledge given to Arjun by Lord Krishna which today know as Geeta.
Hinduism also describes another way to the question of how to practice enlightenment? Described by Lord Shiva himself it is the way of yoga and life of a yogi. Described in the book like, Shiva Shamita, Gahendra Shimata yoga is the way to attain enlightenment. It is believed that yoga was invented by Adi yogi who was Mahadev.
The core of yoga is much different from what we know and practice today. When one knows and follows the rules of yoga described by Mahadev in Shiva Shamita they will have the powers like God? They will have unbelievable strength, the ability to fly, and many more which seems like magic to an average human.
This still is not the end goal of yoga. This is what happens mid-way still the yogi will have a long way to go. The end of yogic knowledge is samadhi itself. Samadhi is also known as moksha or enlightenment. Samadhi is the final yogic step where one completely detaches himself from the world and gets connected with the para-Brahma or the eternal god.
The samadhi cannot be achieved by everyone, one who can master the true essence of yoga and uncover the secrets of yoga can only move through the steps to samadhi. Yogi spent many years trying to reach the level of samadhi but cannot. With great determination and time yogi reach and achieve samadhi.
There are also other ways in Hinduism described that give enlightenment. Hinduism is very vast and there are many subdivisions within it. They all describe the ways by which enlightenment can be achieved. Whatever path may be the ultimate goal is to awaken the soul and connect to the universe itself.
Ramayana is the story of the life of Lord Ram. It is the one of the greatest mythological tales of Hinduism. Religious peoples of Hinduism, believe that the story is based on the real events that happened thousands of years ago, while atheists believe it to be only a mythological tale. However, despite this nobody can deny that Ramayana is an epic tale with the story of the win of the truth.
Lord Ram is considered as the 7th avatar of lord Vishnu. Lord Vishnu incarnated as Lord Ram in this world to free earth from all evil doers. Whenever earth is filled with evil doers Lord Vishnu incarnated here to free mother earth from them. Lord Ram was born on Treta Yug, as the eldest son of king Dashrath and queen Kaushalya Vati.
Birth of Lord Ram
King Dashrath was childless despite having three queens. He was getting older day by day, but there was no one after him to succeed his kingdom. Then the Kul guru of Ayodhya (kingdom of Dashrath), suggested the king to perform Putrakameshti Yagya. Then the king with the help of Rishyasringa muni performed the Yagya. As, the boon of this Yagya lord Ram and his four brothers were born. The events of Ramayana, started even before the birth of Lord Ram, however the core part of Ramayana starts and ends with him.
The four brothers
Lord Ram was born to queen Kaushalya, Bharat to queen Kekai, the twins Laksman and Satrughan to queen Sumitra. Ramayana is the love between these four brothers. It is believed that the other three brothers are also the energy of Lord Vishnu. Laksman was incarnation of Sesh Naag, Bharat of Sankha of Lord Vishnu and Shatrughan was of Sudarshan chakra. Since, they also were the part of Lord Ram, they had an extraordinary affection towards Lord Ram.
Tadaka, Marich and Subahu
The three daemons Tadaka, Marich and Subahu terrorized the forest where rishi Vishwamitra preformed holy ceremony. To defeat them the rishi went to Ayodhya to take Ram and Laksman. With great reluctance the king let them go with the sage. The sage taught the princes the art of mystic and godly weapons. With the weapons the princes killed the demon and pleased Vishwaamitra.
Ram, Sita marriage
Ramayana took another turn with the entry of mother Sita. At Janakpur, the kingdom of King Janak a Shoy Ambar was taking place. The proposition was that whoever lifts and uses the great Shiva Dhanush will wed Sita. The sage took the princes to only watch the ceremony. However, when no one was able to do so, Lord Ram stood up and completed the challenge. By this, Lord Ram married mother Sita. Also, the three brothers of Ram married the three sisters of Sita.
The tragic part of Ramayana, begun with the exile of Lord Ram for 14 years in the forest. Kekai with the influence of Manthara, wished for the king to exile Lord Ram while Bharat will become the king. Laksman and Sita also decided to aid Ram in this journey. In this period Bharat and Shatrughan were at their uncle’s house. With great reluctance the king let his, two beloved son and daughter in law go.
Death of the King
King Dashrath was not able to bear to be away from his beloved Ram. He died shortly after the events of exile. After this, Bharat was called to Ayodhya. Bharat upon arriving came to know of the events of exile. He firstly rejected the throne, then was incredibly angry at his mother and Manthara. Bharat went to forest to tell Lord Ram about the death of their father and begged him to return in his throne.
Ram ordered Bharat to go to Ayodhya and let him follow the last order of his Bharat. Bharat took the shoes of Lord Ram to place it in the throne. He told that Ayodhya will always be of Lord Ram, but while the Lord completes his duty Bharat will take care of the kingdom but not as the King but as the humble servant of Lord Ram.
Surpankha was the seed of the war in Ramayana. The brothers and mother Sita were leaving a peaceful life at Panchavati. Surpankha, was enchanted with the beauty of Lord Ram. She proposed him for marriage disguised as a beautiful woman. Lord Ram declined saying that he will only love his wife and will never look at other women. In rage and rejection, she tried to kill mother Sita and it the heat of the moment sliced the nose of Surpankha. Surpankha ran to Lanka and pleaded revenge to her brother Ravan.
Ravan was the main antagonist of Ramayana. He was the son of sage Visravas and was exceptional. He was perfect in everything knowledge, power, mystic arts. He obtained many boons from Lord Brahma and Lord Shiva. He is also called the greatest devotee of Lord shiva. He was born with the name Dashanan but later was given the name Ravan. He was the king of Lanka and the one who had defeated all the worlds, Swargaloka, Prith Vilok and Patalloka.
When Surpankha told Ravan about the beautiful wife of Ram. He decided to take his revenge by abducting the wife of Ram.
Abduction of Sita
Marich turned to golden deer and went to Panchavati. Sita was enchanted by its beauty and told Lord to get it for her. Lord Ram went to catch the deer. However, the deer after reaching far away cried in the voice of Ram for help. After hearing this Sita ordered Laksman to go after him. He created Laksman Rekha around the house and went to find his brother. Ravan disguised him as the sage and went to ask vishya. He tricked Sita to come out of the Rekha and then abducted her.
Meeting with the monkey king Sugreeva
In Ramayana when Lord ram went to look for his wife, he found Sugreeva and Hanuman. Sugreeva and Ram oath to become friends for lifetime and vowed to help each other. With this Ram killed Bali the twin brother of Sugreeva who had done wrong to him. Then in return Sugreeva helped him to find mother Sita. He dispatched all his army across the globe to find mother Sita.
Lord Hanuman was the one who discovered her kept in Lanka against her will. He infiltrated Lanka in his miniature from and met mother Sita. He told her that Lord Ram will come with his army to rescue her from her captivity. Lord hanuman was captured afterward at his own will. Ravan ordered to burn the tail of Hanuman. Then Lord Hanuman set the whole Lanka on fire with his burned tail and returned to Lord Ram.
According to Ramayana, Vivishana is the younger brother of Ravana. Despite being from the Asur’s Vivishana was gentle, righteous, and supported right. Despite being Ravana’s brother he was not fond of his ways. When Ravan wanted to kill Hanuman, he was the one who suggested that death was not fit for the messenger. However, when Hanuman burnt down Lanka, they blame Vivishana for his suggestion to let him live. In anger Ravan disowned and banished Vivishana. Then Vivishana went to Lord Ram to surrender himself, and Lord Ram opened him with open arms.
The sea Bridge
Lord Ram in Ramayana made a big bridge if sea, to take his army across the sea. Sea was in between of Lord ram’s army and Lanka. It was impossible to take such huge army across the sea. The sea god helped Lord Ram to build the bridge in the ocean that took the army across the sea.
Last warning for peace
Lord Ram sent prince Aangat (Son of Bali), to warn Ravan for the last time to surrender Sita and beg for forgiveness or he will be killed. Ramayana tells how greatly Lord Ram tried to avoid the war but Ravana’s arrogance led to it. Ravan rejected the Lord’s offer and choose war.
The war revolves on Lord Ram, Hanuman and Ravana-Triangular relationship. The war described in Ramayana lasted for 12 days according to Valmiki Ramayana. In the war countless died from both sides. Many cosmic, mystic weapons were used in the battle. Both sides fought with great bravery, skill, and everything they got for the leader they believed in.
From the side of Lord Ran and truth were Laksman, Hanuman, Sugreev, Jambavan, Naal, Neel. Other were also there but they were the strongest of all and killed most of the warriors from Ravans side.
From the Ravans side were Meghnath (Indrajeet), Kumbhkarna, Aatika, Prahasta and many more. They were all the warrior who were extremely capable, protected by the boons and even feared by the gods. However, one stood above all Meghnath. He was the ultimate warrior created by Ravan. When he was born Ravan ordered all the planets to be in the exact spot that he ordered. This was done to have the ultimate son, and to an extend he succeed. Ramayana, tells that Ravan had completed faith in his eldest son and was immensely proud to have him.
According to Ramayana, Meghnath was hardest to kill during the war. He was the one who mortally wounded Laksman with his shakti. Lord Hanuman travelled thousand miles in single night to bring Sanjivini to save Laksman.
To kill Meghnath in a fair fight was almost impossible so with the help of Vivishana, he was attacked where he was conducting Yagya of his Kuladevi. A great battle took place and he was eventually killed by Laksman.
All the warriors from Ravan’s side were killed in the battle, he was the only one left. He battled Lord Ram at last. Lord Ram continuously cut down the head of Ravan, but due to his boons a new head sprouted repeatedly. According to Ramayana, it was Vivishana who told Lord Ram the trick to kill Ravan was to attack him on his stomach. Then only Ravan was killed.
The End of war
In Ramayana, the war ended with the death of Ravana. The war took too many lives on both sides. Many warriors died while fighting the war or injured.Vivishana was crowned as the king of Lanka. Then after the war Lord Ram freed mother Sita from Lanka.
Return to Ayodhya
After the events of war, the time of the exile of Lord Ram also had ended. Lord Ram after saying farewell and thanking, the Vanar army returned to Ayodhya with his wife and brother. The people of Ayodhya were eagerly waiting for the return of their king. They welcomed their king with boundless joy and happiness. Then lord Ram sat on his throne and started to look the nation as the king. Peace and prosperity were as peak during the time.
Exile of Sita
According to Ramayana, Lord Ram when visiting the nation overheard a potter, talking that it was illicit of a king to accept the wife abducted by another man. Then Lord Ram exiled mother Sita from the nation.
Birth of Luv and Kush
After Sita was exiled from Ayodhya, sage Valmiki gave her space in his Aashram. She was pregnant at the time of exile. It was there she gave birth to the twins Luv and Kush. The sons of Ram and Sita were brave and were as strong as Lord Ram. As the days passed Luv and Kush started to grow.
There was a function in Ayodhya where, anyone who can say the story of Lord Ram (Ramayana), in the court would have in rewarded. The brothers went to the court and recited complete Ramayana, and claimed they were his sons. The people wanted mother Sita herself come to the court and claim that they were the sons of her and Lord Ram.
Sita returns to earth
Sita comes to the court and claims that they are indeed their sons. After proving, this she called the mother earth to take her in as she did not want to live there anymore. Then the earth shattered and mother Sita went inside the earth. Lord Ram was very sad that mother Sita was not present at earth. However, he accepted the fate and continued to complete his duty towards the nation and his family.
Ram returns to Vaikuntha
The purpose for which Lord Ram came to this earth was complete, Dharma was restored. Now, he needed to return to Vaikuntha, the residence of Lord Vishnu where Sita now reached the form of Mahalaxmi was waiting. Then Lord Ram bid farewell to all, gave the responsibilities of the kingdom and people to his sons. According to Ramayana, Lord Ram then walked into Sarayu river and gained the form of Lord Vishnu and went to Baikuntha.
Importance of Hawan and yajna and science behind it in Hindu culture
Hawan is a special type of ritual performed in Hindu culture around a fire, which is performed by the priest. It is a very sacred ceremony performed in a Hindu community. While the ceremony may be same the motive for which the ceremony is held by peoples may vary. Hawan is a religious ceremony, the people today mainly perform it due to its religious and sentimental value.
However, many people do not know that hawan hold many scientific benefit also not just religious and sentimental value. Importance of Hawan by scientific perspective is supported and backed up by many researches. The ritual, mantras, equipment’s used in the ritual holds many scientific functions not just religious one. One must have deeply studied and researched about hawan if they know importance of hawan by scientific perspective.
Hawan is a ritual solely originated from Hindu or Vedic religion. The mention of hawan or yajna can be found in the ancient Hindu texts and scriptures. Nobody knows exactly who or when invented this religious ritual. However, this much is sure that the ritual is thousands and thousands of years old, and the ritual originated in ancient Indian sub-continent.
The ritual was also adopted by the different religions like Buddhism and Jainism. Importance of hawan in scientific, religious, and sentimental fields made the ritual so popular that it got integrated even into other religion. When hawan got integrated into other religions the name also got little bit changed. Homa, yajna are some of the other’s names of hawan in Hindu religion. While it is called Goma in Buddhism or fire religion. The Sanskrit meaning of hu from which homa waw derived means sacrifice to the fire, offering to the fire or pouring to the fire.
Hawan Knud is the center place for the performance of the ritual. It is the special type of pit made to light the fire. It is made at the center place where the hawan ritual is going to be performed. Anciently for performing hawan, big square pit was dug, and big fire was lighted in the pit for the performance of hawan. However, these days people rarely light so big fire. It may be due to urbanization. Due to urbanization, there is no big open spaces left. Hence, lighting big fire in congested environment may result in big fires.
There is no specific type of standard to make a specific sized pit and specific volume of fire. The goal is to offer the offering or sacrifice to the fire. Hence fire is needed, the volume of pit and fire is not so important. If you are performing hawan in your residence then small pit and fire is sufficient. However, if a big hawan is being done with the involvement of community members or many people then the fire and pit should be increased accordingly. Try to make the length, breadth, and height of the same length, that is one important rule.
Types of Hawan
There are several types of hawan and importance of hawan is also a bit based on that type. The type of hawan is done according to the need and to please certain deity. The several types of hawan performed are as follows: – Mahalaxmi Havan – Rudra Hawan – Sudarshan Hawan – Sarswati Hawan – Laxmi Narayan Hawan – Mahakali Hawan – Gayatri hawan – Laxmi Narshima Hawan – Nakshatra Hawan – Laxmi Ganapati Hawan
There are some of the most popular hawan that are performed. However, there are many other types also. Importance of hawan varies from what type it is. Some is done for economical balance, some for peace, some for energy, and some for knowledge and enlighten. However, for all various the common thing is the fire pit and offering to the fire.
It is particularly important that before performing hawan people understand hawan as well as importance of hawan. Hawan is a multi-dimensional thing when we deeply look at it. May be hundreds of years ago it was only looked as a religious point of view. However, now we know differently. We know the science behind it. It has become a mixture of religion and science.
Hawan has many ingredients. Some of the ingredients may vary according to the religion, culture, and type of hawan performed. However, most of the ingredients remains same.
The list of ingredients are:
Haldi, Chandan, Rice, Flowers, sandal wood, Jau, Til, Akshata, camphor, ghee, honey, Kamal gatta, cow dung, Kush, cloves, coconut, fruits, mango and peepal leaves, nutmeg, red sandal wood, hawan utensils,dhup, etc.
Many people do not understand the importance of hawan. They see hawan as a religious ritual but do not know the science behind it. Following are the importance of Hawan and science behind it:
One of the biggest importance of hawan is air purification. Hawan purifies the air in many ways. When big flame is lighted it heats the air around the surrounding getting rid of the potential bacteria’s and other harmful microbes. The heated air gets lighter and gets upward, then the cold air replaces the warm air and starts to get warm. This process is continued until the whole surrounding air gets cleaned.
Another thing to get noted during the hawan is the type of wood used for the fire ceremony. Sandal wood, mango, pipal are some of the several types of wood used for the ceremony. Mango wood when burnt creates formic aldehyde gas, which has the capacity to purify the atmosphere. The gas is known to kill bacteria, other harmful microbes and sterilize the environment.
During the hawan ceremony ghee, camper are the main ingredients that are poured into the fire pit. The smell of burnt ghee and camper make the surrounding purified. Also, some research suggests that the burnt smoke of ghee that goes up in the atmosphere comes down to the earth by rain. That type of rain is filled with nutrition’s and is believed to be exceptionally good for the agriculture. Another thing about ghee from smoke is that it dissolves the harmful toxic substances in it, making the environment cleaner.
Another thing about the hawan smoke is that it is an incredibly good mosquito rappeler. Not, only mosquito, it also gets rids of other insects and bacteria. These benefits and advantages reflect the importance of hawan.
Sterilization of home and hawan site is another importance of hawan. Painting the hawan site and house with cow dung and red mud is the ancient rule that people even follow. People know it as rule for hawan, but do not know the scientific reason behind it.
The mixture of cow dung and red mud, when applied to the walls acts as a shield for bacteria and fungus. The mixture has a good anti-fungal, anti-bacterial property. This rule for hawan, is secretly a scientific method which makes even more curious about other importance of hawan from scientific view.
The mud homes that are painted with cow dung becomes the good insulator of heat. During summer it keeps heat out making the interior of house cool. Then, in winter it keeps the heat in making the house warm and keeping the cold out.
Agriculture and fertile land
Food is the basic need of every living beings. No one can survive without food. Agriculture is the key by which we all get food to our tables. The ancient hawan technique uses various methods to improve the overall agriculture. From vague ways to very minute microbial stage it works in all ways.
Importance of hawan is so wide that it even touches agriculture. The hawan woods are of different trees like mango, pipal, sandal wood, and other trees with medicinal properties. When these are burned the remained ashes are extraordinarily rich in minerals and elements. It is practiced from hundreds of years to put the hawan ashes into the agricultural fields for better yield.
The fumes of hawan ingredients go to the atmosphere, then comes down when they get mixed with rain. These waters now mixed with very nutritious elements acts as a natural fertilizer to the plants. These non-toxic chemicals enhance the agricultural products by making land more fertile. Moreover, this process has no drawback and only benefit.
There is another importance of hawan from agricultural point of view. When the hawan kunda is heated, not only the woods turn into ashes, but the ground also gets heated. The heated ground absorbs the minerals from under it making the surface of the land more fertile.
Mental, psychological, and spiritual peace
Among the various importance of hawan, it is the most notable and obvious one. One does not need to know the scientific procedures and facts to feel it. One can attend a hawan ritual and can immediately feel it.
The hawan environment is so made that it invokes a psychological effect in the people. It makes the person calm from the inside. The attitude of peoples attending it, the ingredients, the flowers, scent purifies a person from inside out.
When a person sees or witness a violent action, his inner psychology is teaching the person that behavior. Such is the human inner psychology. So, human need to go to peaceful, spiritual place to balance the inner spirituality and mental health. Hawan ritual is such place which helps you mentally as well as spiritually. Importance of hawan has wide range from physical body to spiritual and mental also.
Power of mantras
Mantras are the souls of hawan. Powerful mantras signify the importance of hawan in our lives. Mantras are the ancient sounds that have mysterious properties. Science do not accept that mantras have special mystical abilities, because science need facts and evidence. However, science also cannot completely reject the power of mantras.
Mantras scientifically are sound and vibrations, a form of energy. These energies when projected will definitely give the outcome. Also, the chanting’s changes the psychology of the person. It makes the person calmer, understanding and more genial towards the world. Sages say that power of hawan lies in the mantra used during the hawan.
Fight against diseases
Getting rid of diseases in also one of the major importance of hawan. Disease is the abnormality caused in the body, by the introduction of the foreign body of due to lack of essential elements in the body. Diseases and disorder have been around as long as the humans have been. Now, the scholars have hypothesized a missing link between diseases, disorders and hawan.
The passage of medicine in the gas or smoke form is considered one of the fastest methods of releasing the medicine inside the body. It has almost immediate effect to the body. The scholars had hypothesized that hawan may have created to fight with the diseases of brain and other parts. Hawan uses various Phyto chemicals and nutritional substances in the process.
Foreg, when ghee is poured into the hawan kunda, it gets transformed into ketones and go through the nasal route to the brain. These ketones supply the epilepsy (neuro patients’ brain with the energy to survive. Also, the fumes of the burnt ghee when passes through the respiratory system, it clears blood clots an heals respiratory system. In addition to that if there is any bacteria and foreign harmful microorganisms present in the system it also gets rid of that. Such is the importance of hawan.
Cleanliness and water purification
Importance of hawan is further high lightened by the benefits like water purification. Hawan both directly and indirectly plays key role in water purification and promoting health. People back in time used to see hawan as a religious act to please gods more than a ritual with scientific act.
There is a rule that to perform the hawan, the ritual site as well as the house of the performer to be cleaned from top to bottom. Another thing is that before performing hawan the water inside the house should get replaced. All the water of the house gets replaced. Water neither have expiry date nor it deteriorates, however long-time storage of water makes it contaminated.
It accumulates dust from the surrounding, also insects and bacteria start to appear there. In the name of hawan the house will get clean water and cleanliness is maintained time to time. It is not the direct Importance of hawan or its scientific work. However, it is a psychological rule that acts are a scientific way.
4 Vedas in Hinduism- Rig-Veda, Yajur- Veda, Sama-Veda and Atharva-Veda
There are many ancient texts in Hinduism. But the Vedas in Hinduism has different place, it is considered as one of the oldest Hindu texts. The history of Vedas is ancient and were written around 2,500 years back. There is often a moot about Veda.
It was considered that there was only one Veda, the Yajur, but Yajur was later divided into four different Vedas. Rig-Veda is considered as one of the oldest Vedas of all time. In this article we will delve into various Vedas.
Another truth about Vedas in Hinduism is it is divided into two different parts, namely a Samhita and the Brahmanas. Mantras and incantations are included in the Samhita part. The incantations are mainly used for sacrifices. Nevertheless, these incantations are not a cup of tea to utter as well as interpret without the help of commentaries.
In such cases, Brahmanas are of great help. They are the ones who could explain the hymns. Brahmanas can delinate the descriptions of sacrifices and the procedure to be conducted. Likewise, they know how to conduct the Samhita.
Karma Kanda is referred to the Samhita and the Brahmanas. Therese parts are dealt as the rituals.
The most significant and, as per researchers, most seasoned of the Vedas. It is partitioned into ten books (called mandalas) and has 1028 psalms in the commendation of different gods. These incorporate Indra, Agni, Vishnu, Rudra, Varuna, and other early or “Vedic divine beings.” It likewise contains the popular Gayatri mantra and the supplication called the Purusha Shukta (the tale of Primal Man).
A holy handbook for use in the presentation of yajnas (penances) It is separated into two areas, the prior “dark” and the later “white.” The Yajur Veda is also called the book of the rituals. Yajur Veda was the chief book to guide the priest and the Purohits in the Hindu religion who used to execute the religious and ceremonial activities.
Sama Vedas in Hinduism comprises of serenades and tunes to be sung during love and the exhibition of yajna. Sama Veda is also called the Book of Songs. The derivation of Sama Veda is from two words, Sama means Song and Veda refers to the knowledge. Sama Veda is considered as the roots for the classical Indian music and the old tradition of dances. Likewise, the tradition of dance is itself the archaic in the whole world.
Atharva-Veda is yet another Vedas in Hinduism which containssongs, mantras and chants, generally outside the extent of yajna.
Inside every one of the four books there are four sorts of organization, or divisions, as demonstrated as follows. In the tightest of faculties, just the Samhitas contain the genuine Vedas. The initial two divisions identify with the exhibition of conciliatory customs (the karma-kanda area), while the subsequent pair comprises of theory (and have a place with the jnana-kanda segment).
The Samhitas – in a real sense “assortments,” for this situation of psalms and mantras. They structure the Veda appropriate.
The Brahmanas – exposition manuals of custom and supplication for the directing ministers. They will in general clarify the Samhitas. They additionally contain early forms of certain accounts.
The Aranyakas – in a real sense “timberland books” for loners and holy people. They are philosophical compositions.
The Upanishads – books of theory, likewise called “Vedanta,” the end or finish of the Vedas.
There are likewise two significant collections of advantageous writing, related near the Vedas themselves. They are:
The Vedangas, which elucidate the sciences needed to comprehend and apply the Vedas.
The Upavedas (generally considered smriti) which manage the four conventional expressions and sciences.